Measuring the digitalisation of electricity distribution systems in Europe: Towards the smart grid

Authors Contributions:

Nestor Rodriguez-Perez, Javier Matanza, Gregorio Lopez, Rafael Cossent, Jose Pablo Chaves Avila, Carlos Mateo, Tomas Gomez San Roman, Miguel Angel Sanchez Fornie


This paper proposes a set of digitalisation indicators focused on measuring the different digital capabilities and infrastructure of electricity distribution systems, as opposed to previous indicators which have mainly focused on performance and quality of service aspects.

The indicators are classified according to the pillars of digitalisation: sensor and actuator, connectivity, data processing, and digital culture. They are use-case-agnostic and do not require a huge amount of information. In addition to this, three possible new applications of these indicators for distribution system operators and regulatory authorities are identified and discussed.

The extensive use of these indicators in Europe could allow the development of fruitful collaborations between distribution system operators, allow the identification of cause–effect relations between grid performance and digital infrastructure, and improve the replicability of innovative smart grid solutions. However, this will only be possible if regulators promote the adoption of the proposed indicators and the dissemination of their results.

Impact of topography and land cover on air temperature space-time variability in an urban environment with contrasted topography (Dijon, France, 2014-2021)

Authors Contributions:

Julien Crétat, Yves Richard, Benjamin Pohl, Julita Dudek, Julien Pergaud, Mario Rega and Mélissa Poupelin – Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, UMR 6282 Biogéosciences, CNRS/Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France

Justin Emery, Damien Roy, Daniel Joly and Thomas Thévenin – ThéMA, UMR 6049, CNRS/Université de Bourgogne et
Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France

Eva Marquès and Valéry Masson – Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Université de Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France


The influence of topography and land cover on air temperature space-time variability is examined in an urban environment with contrasted topography through simple and multiple linear regression (SLR and MLR) models, ran for each hour of the period 2014–2021, to explain spatial patterns of air temperature measured by a dense network. The SLR models reveal a complementary influence of topography and land cover, with the largest influence during daytime and nighttime, respectively. The MLR significantly improves upon the SLR models despite persistent intensity errors at night and spatial errors in the early morning. Topography influences air temperatures all year round, with temperature decreasing with height during the day and frequent thermal inversions at night (up to 30% of the time). Impervious surfaces are more influential in summer and early fall, especially during the late afternoon for the fraction covered by buildings and during the early night for the distance from the city center. They contribute to increasing air temperature close to the city center and where the fraction covered by buildings is large. By contrast, vegetation contributes to cool air temperatures during the night, especially in spring and early summer for field crops, summer and early fall for forests, and late fall and winter for low vegetation. Our framework proves to be a low-cost and efficient way to assess how strongly and how recurrently the static surface conditions influence air temperature along the annual and diurnal cycles. It is easily transposable to other areas and study fields.

Impact de la topographie et de la circulation atmosphérique sur l’îlot de chaleur urbain en situation de canicule (Dijon, France)

Authors Contributions:

Julien Crétat, Yves Richard, Olivier Planchon, Melissa Poupelin, Mario Rega, Julien Pergaud, Julita Diallo-Dudek and Benjamin Pohl – Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, UMR 6282 Biogéosciences, CNRS/Université de Bourgogne, France

Justin Emery and Ludovic Granjon – ThéMA, UMR 6049, CNRS/Université de Bourgogne, France

Daniel Joly and Damien Roy – ThéMA, UMR 6049, CNRS/Université de Franche-Comté, France


Impact of topography and atmospheric circulation on the urban heat island under heat waves (Dijon, France). Heatwaves and hot days lead to increased thermal stress, and the latter is potentially exacerbated in urban areas. We examine here the combination of these phenomena using a dense network of air temperature observations in Dijon (northeastern France) over the 2014-2021 period. To that end, we analyze (i) local-scale to synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation and (ii) local factors (land use and topography) influencing the temperature. The five heatwaves that occurred during the period last 4 to 5 days and are associated with large-scale atmospheric blocking, that also favor thermal inversions. Out of the 24 nights under study, 60% are characterized by an urban heat island (UHI) above +3°C and a thermal inversion often exceeding 0.5°C/100 m under calm wind conditions (<2 m/s); 30% by an UHI below +2°C and an adiabatic gradient under windy conditions (>2 m/s); and 10% by a weak UHI, a weak thermal inversion, and variable wind conditions. Similar statistics are obtained for the 105 hot days of the period. Heatwaves and hot days are conducive to two contrasted spatial patterns depending on wind conditions. Windy conditions (>2 m/s) act to ventilate urban heat excess and limit topographic influence. This results in homogeneous air temperature across the study area. In contrast, calm conditions (wind <2 m/s) act to maximize the influence of land use and topography, leading to heat excess in the city and over the plateau west of it and relative coldness in the plain, east of the city, and along the river valley crossing the city from north-west to south-east. Mobilizing this natural cold axis provides an opportunity to damp UHI or, at least, promote cold islands in the city center. This study points out the complementarity of observational networks monitoring the urban climate with atmospheric circulation and surface properties, to quantify the influence of the various driving mechanisms that modulate air temperature and its spatial variability.

How local climate zones influence urban air temperature: Measurements by bicycle in Dijon, France.

Authors Contributions:

Justin Emery – Université de technologie de Compiègne, AVENUES, Centre Pierre Guillaumat – CS 60 319 – 60 203, Compiègne Cedex, France

Benjamin Pohl, Julien Crétat, Yves Richard, Julien Pergaud, Mario Rega, Sébastien Zito, Julita Dudekand Thibaut Vairet – Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, UMR 6282 Biogéosciences, CNRS/Univ Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France

Thibaut Vairet, Daniel Joly and Thomas Thévenin – UMR 6049 THEMA, CNRS/Univ Bourgogne Franche-Comté, France


This study analyses mobile measurements of urban temperatures in Dijon (eastern France) to quantify the influence of urban form on the micro-scale variability of air temperature. A route was ridden identically on 33 spring and summer evenings on a bike fitted out with measuring instruments (VeloClim). These evenings followed sunny calm days conducive to the formation of thermal contrasts and urban heat islands (UHIs). Two typologies, Corine Land Cover (CLC) and Local Climate Zones (LCZ), are used to assess the impact of urban form and land cover on air
temperatures based on Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). ANOVA is applied to the mean of runs to maximize the effect of surface states, and to each run individually to maximize the influence of weather conditions.

The results show that both typologies prove relevant and complementary for studying the impact of vegetated and artificialized zones on urban temperature. Temperature variations on intra-urban scales are significantly modulated by urban form and land cover types. Vegetated
areas are systematically cooler than impervious surfaces. Independently of meteorological conditions, urban form has a decisive influence on air temperature and each CLC or LCZ category has
an original air temperature signature.

ICT Scalability and Replicability Analysis for Smart Grids: Methodology and Application

Authors Contributions:

Néstor Rodríguez-Pérez: conceptualisation, methodology, formal analysis, investigation, writing—original draft preparation, and visualisation.
Javier Matanza Domingo and Gregorio López López: writing – review and editing, supervision, project administration, and funding acquisition.
All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

The essential role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in modern electricity grids makes it necessary to consider them when evaluating the scalability and replicability capabilities of smart grid systems. This paper proposes a novel step-by-step methodology to quantitatively perform an ICT scalability and replicability analysis (SRA) in a smart grid context. The methodology is validated and exemplified by applying it to two real case studies demonstrated in the EU-funded RESPONSE project and comprises solutions relying on different communication technologies. The results of the proposed methodology are summarised through ICT scalability and replicability maps, which are introduced in this paper as a quick way of obtaining an overview of the scalability and replicability capabilities of an ICT system and as an efficient way of estimating the feasibility of scenarios not covered in the SRA.

Cyber Security of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Open Issues and Recommendations

Inna Skarga-Bandurova – School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, Oxford Brookes University
Igor Kotsiuba – Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience, Durham University
Tetiana Biloborodova – Saarland University of Applied Science, HTW Saar

The paper analyses cyber security challenges of smart cities with a particular focus on the intelligent integrated and interconnected electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. The analysis indicates that not all innovative elements and smart city solutions have adequate cybersecurity protection. Digital technologies vary considerably in terms of the level of potential risks, with certain novel technologies — such as V2G, smart charging, and smart energy management — posing higher risks than others. It is intended to lay a foundation for securing EV charging infrastructure by analysing problem context and data to be protected, including attack surfaces and cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities in the EV ecosystem, analysing standardisation for the EV connection to the charging infrastructure, and providing a set of recommendations and best practices to securing EV charging infrastructure.
Keywords—cyber security, electric vehicle, smart charging infrastructure, V2G

Read the full paper here.

Assessing Impact, Performance and Sustainability Potential of Smart City Projects: Towards a Case Agnostic Evaluation Framework


Authors: Konstantinos Kourtzanidis , Komninos Angelakoglou , Vasilis Apostolopoulos , Paraskevi Giourka and Nikolaos Nikolopoulos

Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Thermi, GR-57001
Thessaloniki, Greece; (K.A.); (V.A.); (P.G.); (N.N.)
* Correspondence:

Abstract: We report on a novel evaluation framework to globally assess the footprint of smart cities and communities (SCC) projects, being also expandable to the case of smart grid related projects. The uniform smart city evaluation (USE) framework is constructed upon three complementary evaluation axes: the first one aims to weigh up the success of a SCC project based on performance metrics against pre-defined project-specific target values. The second axis focuses on the project’s impact towards the sustainability of a city and it is bench-marked against national and international key objectives arising from strategic plans. This bench-marking feeds the third axis which provides a more inclusive evaluation against four pre-defined and widely acclaimed sectors of interest. The steps to be followed for the uniform evaluation of each axis and corresponding index are presented in detail, including necessary key performance indicator (KPI) normalization, weighting, and aggregation methods. The resulting indices’ scores for each axis (namely project performance index, sustainability impact index, and sustainability performance index) can be post-processed with adequate data processing and visualization tools to extract important information on the extent to which the range of success of a SCC project contributes to the city sustainability progress. Illustrative examples from an on-going SCC project are provided to highlight the strengths of the approach. The proposed framework can be used to compare multiple projects within a city and sustainability and project performance in different cities, evaluate the interventions chosen per project against city needs, benchmark and design future projects (with, e.g., reverse engineering, projections), as well as evaluate various spatial and temporal scales.

Keywords: smart cities; evaluation; frameworks; impact; KPI